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When to use BY

BY?

How to use BY

made by The meaning of by is the same as beside,
at the side of, next to or near somebody/something

Examples:

Were you sitting by (beside) the door?

Jana parked her car by (beside) mine.

The police station is by the church isn’t it?

Showing motion usually shows movement past a place:

We walked by your office this morning.

Who was that man who just ran by us?

Action

writing

To show who or what does, creates or causes something:

He was knocked down by a bus.

A play written by Shakespeare.

Who’s that book by?

I was frightened by the noise of the storm.

To show how something is done:

We send a postcard or a letter by post.

We contact someone by phone or by email.

Travel

To show how someone travels:

They came by car/ by taxi/ by train/ by plane.

For an amount

‘We sell tomatoes by the kilo.’

‘By’ as ‘alone’

By can be used with:

myself/yourself/himself/herself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves

These all show someone or something being alone:

‘I stayed at home by myself and read the newspaper.’

‘The cat opened the door by himself.’

 

 

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How to use THE

THE

Ive noticed especially in writing activities that some people find how to use THE confusing.

The is a Definite article. The list may seem long but the main rule is: we use the when we are talking about something or someone specific.share_image(1)

We use The in front of a noun when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to

I’ll pass by and collect the children at four o’clock.

or there is only one of those places  in those surroundings:

When you’re in town you must visit the zoo. (there is only one zoo normally in a town)

I’m going to the Eiffel tower.

 

The is also used to talk about a person or thing that has already been mentioned:

I received the shirt and dress I ordered from a shop on the internet. I really like the dress but the shirt is a little tight.

There’s a position available where I work. The job will involve some international travel.

In a situation where it is clear what is happening:

Could you pass me the salt? Everyone can see it.

Used to talk about a particular person or thing:

I don’t like the comedian. (I don’t like that particular comedian)

I don’t like comedians (in general I don’t like comedians)

To identify a particular person or thing:

The US president is visiting Russia in May.

The sweater is on the chair.

The oranges are on the table.

The man sitting over there is famous.

Use the with countries that include the words “republic”, “kingdom”, or “states” in their names:

The UK

The USA

The UAE

Countries that have plural names:

The Netherlands.

With superlatives:

Everest is the highest mountain on the earth.

That’s the biggest sandwich l’ve never had.

With some adjectives to talk about groups of people:

A lot of rich people don’t know how the poor live.

We must look after the elderly.

When there is one of them in the world that everyone knows about:

The moon.

The sun.

The earth.

The internet.

When we talk about musical instrument:

I already know how to play the piano now I want to learn how to play the violin.

To refer to a system or service:

How long does it take on the train?
I heard it on the radio.
You should tell the police

For certain countries:

The USA

The UK

The UAE

For ordinal numbers (First, Second, Third etc.)

The third house on the left.

The first women on the moon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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