How to use BY
The meaning of by is the same as beside,
at the side of, next to or near somebody/something
Were you sitting by (beside) the door?
Jana parked her car by (beside) mine.
The police station is by the church isn’t it?
Showing motion usually shows movement past a place:
We walked by your office this morning.
Who was that man who just ran by us?
To show who or what does, creates or causes something:
He was knocked down by a bus.
A play written by Shakespeare.
Who’s that book by?
I was frightened by the noise of the storm.
To show how something is done:
We send a postcard or a letter by post.
We contact someone by phone or by email.
To show how someone travels:
They came by car/ by taxi/ by train/ by plane.
For an amount
‘We sell tomatoes by the kilo.’
‘By’ as ‘alone’
By can be used with:
These all show someone or something being alone:
‘I stayed at home by myself and read the newspaper.’
‘The cat opened the door by himself.’